REFERENCE FROM – DEAD SEA SCROLLS PROJECT – The Israel Antiquities Authority

MORE REFERENCES –  VISIT  http://www.antiquities.org.il

 History or Judaism and Christianity

The discovery of the first Dead Sea Scrolls in a remote Judean Desert cave in 1947 is widely considered the greatest archaeological event of the twentieth century. Bedouin treasure hunters and archaeologists ultimately found the remains of hundreds of ancient scrolls. These fragile pieces of parchment and papyrus, including the oldest existing copies of the Hebrew Bible, were preserved for two thousand years by the hot, dry desert climate and the darkness of the caves where they were placed. The scrolls provide an unprecedented picture of the diverse religious beliefs of ancient Judaism, and of daily life during the turbulent Second Temple period when Jesus lived and preached.

‏Biblical ScrollsFragments of every book of the Hebrew Bible (except the Book of Esther) were found in the Qumran caves, the most famous of the Dead Sea Scrolls sites. Remarkably, some of these ancient copies are identical to the traditional text of the Hebrew Bible that is used today. Other copies preserve differences in the text, which was in the process of standardisation.

1st

genesis

4Q Genesisg

Date: 100–1 bce, Late Hasmonean Period
Language: Hebrew

Among the oldest known copies of Genesis, the fragment of the Scroll shown here contains the description of the first three days of the creation of the world.

“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was formless and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep; And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.”

— Genesis 1:1–2

“I am the Lord your God who took you out of the Land of Egypt out of the house of bondage. You are to have no other gods but me.”

— Deuteronomy 5:6-7

the ten commandments

4Q Deuteronomyn

Date: 30–1 bce,
Herodian Period
Language: Hebrew

This small scroll preserves one of the earliest known copies of the “Ten Commandments” (the Decalogue), a central dogma in Judaism and Christianity, and the majestic description of their divine revelation at Mount Sinai.

psalms scroll

11Q Psalmsa

Date: 1–68 ce,
Herodian Period
Language: Hebrew

“How good and pleasant it is when God’s people live together in unity”

— Psalms 133:1

This book of Psalms is one of the best preserved biblical scrolls, containing 48 psalms, including 7 that are not found in the standard Masoretic version of the Bible. An additional prose passage provides one of the most ancient references to King David as the composer of the book of Psalms: “and David, the son of Jesse, was wise, and a light like the light of the sun… And he wrote 3,600 psalms.” Psalm 133, shown here, praises peace and togetherness.

paleoleviticus

11Q paleoLeviticusa

Date: 1–50 ce, Herodian Period
Language: Hebrew

This copy of the book of Leviticus is written in the ancient Hebrew script used in First Temple times. The fragment shown here deals with the prohibition against the ancient cultic practice of sacrificing children to the Semitic god Molech, and the punishments for violating this ban.

tefillin

4Q Phylactery H

Date: 200 bce – 50 ce, Hellenistic-Roman Period Language: Hebrew

The tefillin (“phylacteries”) found in the Qumran caves are the earliest known examples of these ritual objects—leather capsules containing scrolls with excerpts of biblical texts. Modern versions of these artifacts are still produced and used today.

Right: Tefillin capsules from Qumran Cave 4.
Dimensions: ~ 1×2 cm

Minor Prophets Scroll  8Hev Twelve Minor Prophets Date: 50–1 bce, Herodian Period Language: Greek

The “Twelve Minor Prophets” scrolls from the Judean Desert offer early evidence for the compilation of these short prophetic books into a single literary work. This particular fragment, from a Greek translation of the Minor Prophets discovered in the Cave of Horror at Nahal Hever, contains a prophecy of Micah about the End of Days and the rise of a ruler out of Bethlehem.

Non-Biblical ScrollsNon-biblical texts discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls offer us a tantalizing glimpse of life during the Second Temple period and the opportunity to understand the attitudes, desires and aspirations of the people of that time. Most of the scrolls from the Qumran caves are religious writings from the Second Temple period. Some of these reflect the life and philosophy of a distinctive group that called itself the “Yahad” (“Community”). At other sites, the major finds were administrative and personal documents dating from the catastrophic Judean revolt against Rome in 132–135 ce.

Community Rule

4Q Serekh ha-Yahade

Date: 50–25 bce, Herodian Period
Language: Hebrew

The Community Rule contains laws and rules meant for members of a group termed the “Yahad”, or “Community.” The regulations offer insights into the religious and social lives of this group, which some scholars have identified with the Essenes, a Jewish sect at the time of the Second Temple. This selected text describes the structure of leadership within this hierarchical, priestly society.

Enoch

4Q Enocha

Date: 150–50 bce,
Hasmonean Period
Language: Aramaic

The book of Enoch was not included in the canon of the Hebrew Bible. It tells of Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, who lived for 365 years and “walked with God”. The displayed fragment describes the heavenly revolt of the fallen angels, and their descent to earth to cohabit with the daughters of men and to reveal secret knowledge to mankind, a story hinted at in Gen. 6:1-4.

Apocryphon of Daniel

4Q Apocryphon of Daniel

Date: 50–1 bce, Herodian Period
Language: Aramaic

The Dead Sea Scrolls contain extensive apocalyptic literature relating to the final messianic battle at the End of Days. The Aramaic Apocryphon of Daniel describes either a messianic figure or a boastful ruler that will arise as “Son of God” or “Son of the Most High”, like the apocalyptic redeemer in the biblical book of Daniel. The text calls to mind the New Testament proclamation of the angel Gabriel concerning the new-born Jesus: “He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High… ” (Luke 1:32)

The Book of War

11Q Sefer ha-Milhamah

Date: 20–50 ce, Herodian Period
Language: Hebrew

The Book of War details an apocalyptic 40-year battle between the forces of good and evil. This fragment preserves a blessing to be recited by the leader of the surviving community upon their victory in the final battle, at the end of time: “God Most High will bless you and shine his face upon you, and he will open for you his rich storehouse in the heavens.” God and his holy angels will bestow abundance and fertility upon the holy congregation, and protect them from plagues and wild animals.

Legal Papyrus

Date: Autumn 134 ce
Roman Period
Language: Hebrew

70 years after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, a charismatic leader known as Shimon Bar Kokhba arose to lead a band of rebels intent on regaining Jewish autonomy. Documents from the Bar Kokhba caves are evidence of this tumultuous revolt in 132-135 ce. They consist of administrative, legal, and personal records, such as the papyrus shown here, as well as some religious texts, that tell stories of the daily lives of soldiers and of refugees seeking haven during the turmoil.

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Historical Timeline – JUDAISM – CHRISTISM – ISLAMISM

First Temple Period

960-586 bce

Copies of biblical texts presumably composed in this period are among the most significant finds in the Dead Sea Scrolls collection. The First Temple period, with divided kingdoms of Judah and Northern Israel

586 bce

Destruction of the First Temple and Jewish exile to Babylonia

MUR 17, the earliest manuscript identified among the Dead Sea Scrolls

3rd

Second Temple Period

‏Persian Period
539–332 bce

4th

Samaritan legal documents found at Wadi Daliyeh contain specific dates in the 4th century bce.

539 bce

Persian ruler Cyrus the Great conquers the Babylonian Empire and permits Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple

“The Clemency of Cyrus”. From an illuminated manuscript of Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities, by Jean Fouquet, c. 1470-1475. Bibliothèque nationale de France

5th

11th

Top: Papyrus Deed of Slave Sale from Wadi Daliyeh before opening.

Bottom: Papyrus Deed of Slave Sale from Wadi Daliyeh after opening.

‏Hellenistic Period
332–63 bce

Most of the Scrolls and fragments found in the caves near Qumran date to the Hellenistic period.
The majority of the non-biblical Scrolls in this collection – both the sectarian Scrolls and other diverse literary works – were composed during this era.

332 bce

Hellenistic rule.
Alexander the Great conquers Judea

323–141 bce

Ptolemaic and Seleucid rule

hasmonean period

168 – 164 bce

Maccabean Revolt

165 bce

Re-dedication of the Temple.
Beginning of Jewish autonomy

152-143 bce

Jonathan the Hasmonean, Ruler and High Priest

6th

67-63 bce

Civil War between Hyrcanus II and Aristobolus II

4Q448
A prayer text mentioning “King Jonathan”, most likely a Hasmonean ruler
Photo:
Shai Halevi

‏‏Roman Period
63 bce –73 ce

63 bce

Roman general Pompey captures Jerusalem

Many of the Scrolls discovered in the Qumran caves were copied, and a lesser few composed, during the Herodian period. Biblical and non-biblical scrolls as well as some Greek and Latin papyri were found at Masada.

herodian period

37–4 bce

Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel

4 bce

Romans assume direct administration of Judea

4 bce – 40 ce

Lifetime of Jesus of Nazareth

66 ce

Jewish revolt against the Romans

70 ce

Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple

7th

73 ce

Judeans’ last stand at Masada

“The Siege and Destrucion of Jerusalem”
David Roberts, 1850

11Q5 Psalms Scroll Herodian period

8th

Post Second Temple Period

‏Roman Period
73 ce –324 ce

The majority of manuscripts discovered at Wadi Murabba’at, as well as texts from Nahal Hever and Nahal Se’elim, date to the Roman period. Refugees who fled to desert caves during the First Jewish Revolt and the Bar Kokhba Revolt stored their precious personal items in the caves.

132–135 ce

Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome

9th

P.Yadin 44
Legal papyrus from the Bar Kokhba refuge cave Roman Period
Photo:
Shai Halevi

Byzantine Period
324–638 ce

Judea under the rule of the Christian Eastern Roman Empire

13th

Jerusalem on the Madaba Map, from the church of Saint George at Madaba, Jordan. 6th century ce

Early Islamic Period
7th–11th centuries ce

A large collection of Arabic manuscripts from this period was found at Khirbet Mird.

Judea incorporated into the Islamic Empire, under a succession of caliphates

MUR 173
Arabic amulet from Wadi Murabba’at
Photo:
Shai Halevi

“Saracens and Crusaders”
1325-1330. Illuminated Manuscript of Les Chroniques De France, British Library, MS. Royal 16G VI, F.442  Crusader Period
12th–13th centuries ce

A copy of a Greek Christian prayer dated to the Crusader period was found at Wadi Murabba’at.  For two centuries, Christian Crusaders from Europe were the dominant power in “the Holy Land

***********************************************************************************************************************************

I am the LORD thy God
Thou shalt have no other gods
No graven images or likenesses
Not take the LORD’s name in vain
Remember the sabbath day
Honour thy father and thy mother
Thou shalt not kill
Thou shalt not commit adultery
Thou shalt not steal
Thou shalt not bear false witness
Thou shalt not covet

Two texts with numbering schemes

The two texts commonly known as the Ten Commandments are given in two books of the Bible: Exodus 20:1-17 and Deuteronomy 5:4–21.

Religious groups use one of three historical divisions of Exodus 20:1–17 into ten parts[14] tabulated below:

  • Phi. The Philonic division is the oldest, from the writings of Philo and Josephus (first century), which labels verse 3 as number 1, verses 4–6 as number 2, and so on. Groups that generally follow this scheme include Hellenistic Jews, Greek Orthodox and Protestants except Lutherans. Most representations of the commandments include the prologue of verse 2 as either part of the first commandment or as a preface.[15][16][17]
  • Tal. The Talmudic division, from the third-century Jewish Talmud, makes verses 1–2 as the first “saying” or “declaration” (rather than “commandment”), and combines verses 3–6 as number 2.[18]
  • Aug. The Augustinian division (fifth century) starts with number 2 of the Talmudic division, and makes an extra commandment by dividing the prohibition on coveting into two. Both Roman Catholics and Martin Luther adopted the Augustinian method. Roman Catholics use Deuteronomy by default when quoting the Ten Commandments whereas Luther used the Exodus version.

The Ten Commandments

Phi

Tal

Aug

Exodus 20:1-17

Deuteronomy 5:4-21

1 1 And God spoke all these words, saying, 4–5 The LORD spoke with you face to face at the mountain, out of the midst of the fire, 5 while I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the LORD. For you were afraid because of the fire, and you did not go up into the mountain. He said:
Pre 1 2 “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 6 “‘I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
1 2 1 3 “You shall have no other gods before me. 7 “‘You shall have no other gods before me.
2 2 1 4 “You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 8 “‘You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
2 2 1 5 You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the LORD your God am a jealous God,visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, 9 You shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me,
2 2 1 6 but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments. 10 but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.
3 3 2 7 “You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain. 11 “‘You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.
4 4 3 8 “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 12 “‘Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you.
4 4 3 9 Six days you shall labor, and do all your work, 13 Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
4 4 3 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. 14 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant, or your ox or your donkey or any of your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you.
4 4 3 11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. 15 You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day.
5 5 4 12 “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land that the LORD your God is giving you. 16 “‘Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God commanded you, that your days may be long, and that it may go well with you in the land that the LORD your God is giving you.
6 6 5 13 “You shall not murder. 17 “‘You shall not murder.
7 7 6 14 “You shall not commit adultery. 18 “‘And you shall not commit adultery.
8 8 7 15 “You shall not steal. 19 “‘And you shall not steal.
9 9 8 16 “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 20 “‘And you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
10 10 9-10 17 “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s.” 21 “‘And you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife. And you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, or his male servant, or his female servant, his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s.’

13 Principles of Hermeneutics:

  1. A law that operates under certain conditions will surely be operative in other situations where the same conditions are present in a more acute form
  2. A law operating in one situation will also be operative in another situation, if the text characterizes both situations in identical terms.
  3. A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served.
  4. When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it.
  5. A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization.
  6. A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified.
  7. The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars (rules 4 and 5) will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language.
  8. A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization.
  9. A penalty specified for a general category of wrong-doing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty.
  10. A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe.
  11. A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them.
  12. Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages
  13. Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages.

Empty table cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon.

Tanakh
(
Jewish Bible)
(24 books)
[6]
Books in bold are part of the
Ketuvim

Protestant
Old Testament
(39 books)

Catholic
Old Testament
(46 books)

Eastern Orthodox
Old Testament
(51 books)

Original language

Torah

Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses

Bereishit

Genesis

Genesis

Genesis

Hebrew

Shemot

Exodus

Exodus

Exodus

Hebrew

Vayikra

Leviticus

Leviticus

Leviticus

Hebrew

Bamidbar

Numbers

Numbers

Numbers

Hebrew

Devarim

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy

Hebrew

Nevi’im (Prophets)

Historical books

Yehoshua

Joshua

Joshua (Josue)

Joshua (Iesous)

Hebrew

Shofetim

Judges

Judges

Judges

Hebrew

Rut (Ruth)[7]

Ruth

Ruth

Ruth

Hebrew

Shemuel

1 Samuel

1 Samuel (1 Kings)[8]

1 Samuel (1 Kingdoms)[9]

Hebrew

2 Samuel

2 Samuel (2 Kings)[8]

2 Samuel (2 Kingdoms)[9]

Hebrew

Melakhim

1 Kings

1 Kings (3 Kings)[8]

1 Kings (3 Kingdoms)[9]

Hebrew

2 Kings

2 Kings (4 Kings)[8]

2 Kings (4 Kingdoms)[9]

Hebrew

Divrei Hayamim (Chronicles)[7]

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles (1 Paralipomenon)

1 Chronicles (1 Paralipomenon)

Hebrew

2 Chronicles

2 Chronicles (2 Paralipomenon)

2 Chronicles (2 Paralipomenon)

Hebrew

1 Esdras

Hebrew

Ezra-Nehemiah[7]

Ezra

Ezra (1 Esdras)

Ezra (2 Esdras)[9][10]

Hebrew and Aramaic

Nehemiah

Nehemiah (2 Esdras)

Nehemiah (2 Esdras)[9][10]

Hebrew

Tobit (Tobias)

Tobit (Tobias)

Aramaic (and Hebrew?)

Judith

Judith

Hebrew

Esther[7]

Esther

Esther[11]

Esther[11]

Hebrew

1 Maccabees (1 Machabees)[12]

1 Maccabees

Hebrew

2 Maccabees (2 Machabees)[12]

2 Maccabees

Greek

3 Maccabees

Greek

4 Maccabees[13]

Greek

Ketuvim (Writings)

Wisdom books

Iyov (Job)[7]

Job

Job

Job

Hebrew

Tehillim (Psalms)[7]

Psalms

Psalms

Psalms[14]

Hebrew

Prayer of Manasseh

Greek

Mishlei (Proverbs)[7]

Proverbs

Proverbs

Proverbs

Hebrew

Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes)[7]

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes

Hebrew

Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs)[7]

Song of Solomon

Song of Songs (Canticle of Canticles)

Song of Songs (Aisma Aismaton)

Hebrew

Wisdom

Wisdom

Greek

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)

Sirach

Hebrew

Nevi’im (Latter Prophets)

Major prophets

Yeshayahu

Isaiah

Isaiah (Isaias)

Isaiah

Hebrew

Yirmeyahu

Jeremiah

Jeremiah (Jeremias)

Jeremiah

Hebrew and Aramaic

Eikhah (Lamentations)[7]

Lamentations

Lamentations

Lamentations

Hebrew

Baruch[15]

Baruch[15]

Hebrew[16]

Letter of Jeremiah[17]

Greek (majority view)[18]

Yekhezqel

Ezekiel

Ezekiel (Ezechiel)

Ezekiel

Hebrew

Daniel[7]

Daniel

Daniel[19]

Daniel[19]

Hebrew and Aramaic

Twelve Minor Prophets

The Twelve
or
Trei Asar

Hosea

Hosea (Osee)

Hosea

Hebrew

Joel

Joel

Joel

Hebrew

Amos

Amos

Amos

Hebrew

Obadiah

Obadiah (Abdias)

Obadiah

Hebrew

Jonah

Jonah (Jonas)

Jonah

Hebrew

Micah

Micah (Micheas)

Micah

Hebrew

Nahum

Nahum

Nahum

Hebrew

Habakkuk

Habakkuk (Habacuc)

Habakkuk

Hebrew

Zephaniah

Zephaniah (Sophonias)

Zephaniah

Hebrew

Haggai

Haggai (Aggeus)

Haggai

Hebrew

Zechariah

Zechariah (Zacharias)

Zechariah

Hebrew

Malachi

Malachi (Malachias)

Malachi

Hebrew

Several of the books in the Eastern Orthodox canon are also found in the appendix to the Latin Vulgate, formerly the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

Books in the Appendix to the Vulgate Bible

Name in Vulgate

Name in Eastern Orthodox use

3 Esdras

1 Esdras

4 Esdras

Prayer of Manasseh

Prayer of Manasseh

Psalm of David when he slew Goliath (Psalm 151)

Psalm 151

 ISLAMISM

 

Iman is generally outlined using the six articles of faith:

  1. Belief in God
  2. Belief in the Prophets
  3. Belief in the Day of Judgment
  4. Belief in the Angels
  5. Belief in Divine Books
  6. Qadr (Fate)

 

Quran mentions at least three main Islamic scriptures which came before the Quran by name.

  • Tawrat (at-Tawrāt): According to the Quran, the Tawrat was revealed to Moses,[2] but Muslims believe that the current Torah, although it retains the main message,[citation needed] has suffered corruption over the years, and is no longer reliable. Moses and his brother Aaron (Harun) used the Torah to preach the message to the Banu-Isra’il (Children of Israel). The Quran implies that the Torah is the longest-used scripture, with the Jewish people still using the Torah today, and that all the Hebrew prophets would warn the people of any corruptions that were in the scripture.[3]
  • Zabur (az-Zabur): The Quran mentions the Zabur, often interpreted as being the Book of Psalms, as being the holy scripture revealed to King David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise.[4] The current Psalms are still praised by many Muslim scholars,[5][6] but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms were written later and are not divinely revealed.[citation needed]
  • Injil (al-Injil): The Injil was the holy book revealed to Jesus, according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the Injil refers to the entire New Testament, scholars have pointed out that it refers not to the New Testament but to an original Gospel, written by God (Arabic الله Allah), which was given to Jesus.[7] Therefore, according to Muslim belief, the Gospel was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels, in Muslim belief, contain portions of Jesus teachings but don’t represent nor contain the original Gospel, which has been corrupted and/or lost, which was a single book written not by a human but by God.[8]

The permanent requirements of Iman are

  1. Righteous Deeds (a‘mal-i salih)
  2. Urging one another to the truth and urging one another to remain steadfast on it (tawasi bi al-haqq wa tawasi bi al-sabr)

Similarly, the contingent requirements of Iman are:

  1. Migration for the Cause of Religion (Hijrah)
  2. Helping the Cause of Religion (Nusrah)
  3. Adhering to Justice (Qiyam bi al-Qist)

The Five Pillars of Islam (arkān-al-Islām أركان الإسلام; also arkān ad-dīn أركان الدين “pillars of the religion“) are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life. These are summarized in the famous hadith of Gabriel.

The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They make up Muslim life, prayer, concern for the needy, self purification and the pilgrimage. They are:

  1. the shahada (Islamic creed)
  2. daily prayers (salah)
  3. almsgiving (zakāt)
  4. fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm)
  5. the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime

Twelvers

In Twelver Shia Islam, there are ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform, called the Ancillaries of the Faith (Arabic: furūʿ al-dīn).

  1. Salah
  2. Sawm
  3. Zakāt, similar to Sunni Islam, but only applies to cattle, silver, gold, dates, raisins, wheat, and barley but not money.
  4. Khums: an annual taxation of one-fifth(20%) of all gain. Khums is paid to the Imams or to poor and needy people.
  5. Hajj
  6. Jihad
  7. Amr-bil-Maroof
  8. Nahi Anil Munkar.
  9. Tawalla: expressing love towards Good.
  10. Tabarra: expressing disassociation and hatred towards Evil.

Ismailis

Ismailis have their own pillars which are as follows:

  • Walayah (lit. “Guardianship”) denotes love and devotion to God, the prophets, the Imamah and the duʻāt (“missionaries”).
  • Tawhid, “Oneness of God”.
  • Salah: Unlike Sunni and Twelver Muslims, Nizari Ismailis reason that it is up to the current imām to designate the style and form of prayer.
  • Zakāt: with the exception of the Druze, all Ismaili madh’hab have practices resembling that of Sunni and Twelver Muslims with the addition of the characteristic Shia khums.
  • Sawm: Nizari and Mustaali believe in both a metaphorical and literal meaning of fasting.
  • Hajj: For Ismailis, this means visiting the imām or his representative and that this is the greatest and most spiritual of all pilgrimages. The Mustaali maintain also the practice of going to Mecca. The Druze interpret this completely metaphorically as “fleeing from devils and oppressors” and rarely go to Mecca.[29]
  • Jihad or “Struggle”: “the Greater Struggle” and the “The Lesser Struggle”.

SUNNI MUSLIMS

Sunni Muslims view the six major hadith collections as their most important. They are, in order of authenticity:

  1. Al-Kutub Al-Sittah( The Six Books )

Sahih Al-Bukhari ( صحيح البخاري )
Sahih Muslim ( صحيح مسلم )
Al-Sunan Al-Sughra ( السنن الصغرى )
Sunan Abi Dawood ( سنن أبي داود )
Sunan Al-Tirmidhi ( جامع الترمذي )
Sunan Ibn Maja ( سُنن ابن ماجه )

Others

Muwatta Imam Malik Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (780–855) Sunan Al-Darimi (868) Shama’il Muhammadiyah often referred to as Shamaail Tirmidhi (9th Century) Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah (923) Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān (965) Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Ṣaḥīḥaīn (1014) Al-Mawdū’āt Al-Kubrā (1128–1217) Rīaḍ As-Ṣāliḥīn (1233–1278) Mishkat Al-Masabih (1340) Talkhis Al-Mustadrak (1274–1348) Majma Al-Zawa’id (1335–1405) Bulugh Al-Maram (1372–1449) Kanz al-Ummal (16th century) Zujajat al-Masabih (19th century) Minhaj us Sawi (20th century) Muntakhab Ahadith (20th century)

Shi’a

Al-Kutub Al-Arb’ah( The four Books )

Kitab Al-Kafi ( الكتاب الكافي )
Man La Yahduruhu Al-Faqih ( من لا يحضره الفقيه )
Tahdhib Al-Ahkam ( تهذیب الاحکام )
Al-Istibsar ( الاستبصار )

Others

The Book of Sulaym Ibn Qays (7th Century) Al-Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyya (678–713) Sharh Usul al-Kafi (?–1081) Nahj Al-Balagha (10th Century) Wasā’il Al-Shīʿa (17th century) Bihar Al-Anwar (17th century) Haqq al-Yaqeen (17th century) Ain Al-Hayat (17th century) Qalam-e-Mowla (?) Daim al-Islam (?)

Ibadi

Al-Jami’ As-Sahih Tartib Al-Musnad

Mu’tazila

Comments on the Peak of Eloquence (?–1258)

There are five articles of faith in the Shi’a Roots of Religion.

Tawhīd (Oneness)

Tawhīd (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism. In Arabic, Tawhīd means “unification, i.e. to unify or to keep something unified as one.” In Islam, Tawhīd means to assert the unity of God. The opposite of Tawhīd is shirk, which means “Association” in Arabic. Muslims view polytheism and idolatry as shirk.

Adalah (Justice)

The Shias believe that there is intrinsic good or evil in things, and that God (Arabic الله Allah: see God in Islam) commands them to do the good things and forbade the evil. They believe that God acts according to a purpose or design, and human reason cannot comprehend this design or purpose in its entirety (though man must always strive to understand as much as he can).

Nubuwwah (Prophethood)

Nubuwwah” means “Prophethood” and denotes that God has appointed Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind God’s message.

God has appointed prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (that is, a perfect system of how to live in “peace” or “submission to God”). Prophets are Messengers which are appointed by Allah to bring the message of God to people and spread that message while the Imam (leader) is appointed by Allah to protect that message since ordinary people will fail to do so. Also, as Muhammad was the last messenger of God which means the message he brought was the last and final message to the people from Allah, none is supposed to bring a message from Allah after Muhammad, therefore, if people were left with the message alone, the true message could not survive long and would have undergone changes. Imams were therefore appointed to take care of the message and prevent people from going astray after the last prophet.

Imāmah (Leadership)

Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind—a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise. Refer to Sahih Al-Bukari, Sahih Muslim (Books of Hadiths (or sayings of the prophet of Islam) of the Sunnis) etc. The prophet is reported to have said that the Islamic leadership is in Quraysh (i.e. his tribe) and that 12 “Imams” (also called “Princes” or “Caliphs”) shall succeed him.

See also: Hadith of the Twelve Successors

Shi’a Muslims believe in Twelve Imams, eleven of whom were killed, but they believe their twelfth Imam is still alive. Their history says that he disappeared after performing rituals of the eleventh Imam’s (his father’s) death. He is still under “ghaybat” or “occultation” and will appear on the face of the earth to raise the truth and bring an end to tyranny and oppression.

Yawm al Qiyyamah (The Day of Resurrection)

Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: “Day of the Resurrection” (Qur’an 71.18), also known as “the Hour (Qur’an 31.34, 74.47)”, “Day of the Account“, (Qur’an 72.130 “Day of the Gathering“, “Day of the Reckoning“, “Day of Distress“, (Qur’an 74.9) and the “Great Announcement“) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. Belief in Qiyâmah is part of Aqidah and is a fundamental tenet of faith in Islam. After the annihilation of this world, God will raise mankind for Judgement. The trials and tribulations of Qiyâmah are detailed in both the Qur’an and the Hadith, as well as in the commentaries of the Islamic expositors and scholarly authorities. Every human, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, is held accountable for his or her deeds and are judged by God accordingly (Qur’an 74.38).

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AN Open letter to all religion  Head’s , politicians , Terrorists ,  Barbarians , criminals , people , Cheats etc  You don’t know when you will you die when you are born you  came to world with out any thing even after knowing in the name of region ,Caste, Race your are killing others , cheating others , Creating problems  to others for power and Ind entity , money , houses , power , woman , chair , dictator . Criminal , Terrorist etc. When you die nothing will come along with you,  Read Qur’an , Bible ,  Mahabharata, old testament, new testament , 5 pillers of islam. 12 pillers  of imlam , etc.  it tells respect others  , parents , pray god , all are equal  ect.

It also tells to respect   all Divine texts .  THIS IS UNIVERSAL LAW for all religions,  THE texts of are real gods and rules for all human beings for survivals.

For survival based on conditions and time this was changed to  Fundamentalism and terrorism for survival etc. With your actions the people will revolt , animals and echo system will revolt to suppress you.  People who suffer others will die like dongs , pigs etc.

Read this comparison paper and decide to live in peace or with killing others for power and Superiority

India never invaded or supressed any religion. HINDUSIM . SINDUISM , INDUSIM was born 9000 years back. later Judisim , Christinaty , Islam came , These three reliigions fought each other for control of people . The largest musilm community is india. The muslim and chirstina brother hood are planning to destablize nation by attacking our culture , religion in the name of minority . We never invaded any other communties , countries etc .you people are fighting each other . Even after giving shelter , peace  the criminals and terrorists in Musilim, christ sects etc of world are creating problems to man kind.  The three wise man are from India , persian , judisim etc. It is mentioned in all sacred texts. Even after know all  things certian sects are trying to call other ancient cultures , values . rituals . faiths etc. this is causing  INSTABILITY. Even after having money with Instability in food , power, helath , house , Partne ships , caste . caders etc will distoy you,  THe people are nation , religuon , earth , echo system . if they distroyed there will huge crises in lfe ,

PEOPLE ARE PEOPLE OR HUMAN BEINGS IN THE NAME OF RELIGION , NATION ,  AREA , SECT , POWER ETC DON’T KILL THEM .

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